Do spiritual symbols mean anything today?

One example of a spiritual symbol is the image of a tree of life.  This is a universal symbol – appearing in ancient wisdom. We find it across cultures, religions and mythology. It turns up as the Yggdrasil (the world tree) of Norse religion, as part of the Jewish Kabbalah and as an Armenian religious symbol, to mention just a few examples.

What does the Tree of life mean to us now?

The Tree of Life appears in the first book of the Bible, Genesis, and also the last – the book of Revelation. At the beginning and the end. It’s almost as if it’s the framework into which the rest of the Bible fits.

We find the Tree of Life at the beginning at the centre of a garden and at the end at the centre of a holy city that descends from heaven. Swedenborg’s interpretation of this spiritual symbolism helps me relate to this; it reflects my changing relationship with the Divine; it is different at the beginning from what it becomes or grows into at the end.

For me, the bits in-between are a depiction of my spiritual wanderings and challenges to reach a spiritual maturity; a deeper connection with my experience of what is spiritual and a living relationship with the Divine Creator.

What is the beginning of our life like?

God has no beginning but we as his finite creations definitely do begin at a point in time. Our beginnings start in an experience of unity and connection, in the oneness of the Divine, yet it is necessary for us to develop into conscious independent individuals in order to choose to return to the forgotten, lost unity and connection of the One Life that creates, loves and sustains us.

This wonderful unity and connection with all that is living, I see in the beautiful Garden of Eden. This undoubtedly idyllic and innocent picture relates to what we experience in the infancy of our spiritual life. It is in the centre of this Garden where we discover or experience the Tree of Life.

Trees are powerful symbols of enduring, substantial mental and spiritual attitudes.
For me, the Tree of Life symbolises the perception that we are all united and connected by the Creative Love that gives life to all. To have this at the centre of one’s life is to perceive that the One Life can be experienced in many facets in other people and the world of nature; the One in the many.

What is the journey through life like?

Another tree appears in the Garden – the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and this is very attractive to us. What sort of perception do we gain from eating its fruit? Its presence gives us a choice; do we decide what is good and true for ourselves or depend purely on it being revealed to us by God? We have minds of our own; surely we can decide for ourselves what we should do?

It is almost inevitable that we turn away from dependence on the Divine to choose and develop our own sense of identity, our ego. Life is then identified as being in the separate individual, myself, because that is what I experience. Therefore I no longer wish to be a part of the Garden of Eden experience which is about being receptive and dependant on Divine revelation.

So I embark on a long spiritual journey passing thought many trials and challenges in order to learn about myself and be self-sufficient.

A part of this quest for enlightenment is expressed in the following quotation from an article in Chrysalis magazine entitled Odyssey by David Garrett:

The loneliness of “coming to oneself” is acutely painful. At some point, in a mysterious way, the seeker dares to consider the possibility that the loneliness and the failure are because the quest was attempted entirely by his own efforts….For the first time, the seeker becomes experientially aware of an inner source that is deeper and more resourceful than the ego. As he/she turns to it, the feeling of being stuck recedes. The cold and barren world tingles and warms. The inner earth sprouts green shoots. Each time she/he consciously relates to the inner wise one, life quickens. When he /she ignores it, vitality ceases.

What is the end of my life like?

There is the possibility of discovering afresh the ‘tree of life’ perception in one’s spiritual maturity – but not in a garden. Now it is at the centre of a city. The Holy City at the end of the Bible is always descending from heaven, therefore I am once again open to Divine revelation coming from a God-given rationality, structured yet full of vitality and dynamism. This is an integration of all that has previously taken place in my experience and comes from heart, mind and service to others.

At the end of the journey one can re-discover what had been lost, and make one’s way back to the beginning to the Tree of Life – but it is different yet paradoxically the same. Perhaps what is to be discovered is always the same, eternal and enduring, but the change has taken place in oneself. This reminds me of the T.S. Eliot poem, Four Quartets, as follows;

We shall not cease from exploration
And at the end of all our exploring
Will be to arrive where we started
And know the place for the first time.
Through the unknown, remembered gate
When the last of the earth left to discover
Is that which was the beginning;
At the source of the longest river
The voice of the hidden waterfall
And the children in the apple-tree
Not known, because not looked for
But heard, half-heard, in the stillness
Between two waves of the sea.
Quick now, here, now, always –
A condition of complete simplicity
(Costing not less than everything)
And all shall be well and
All manner of thing shall be well….

Copyright 2010 Helen Brown

Soul Symbols

Soul Symbols Cover

by Helen Newton and Becky Jarratt

Published by spiritualwisdom.org.uk 2008 pp 157 £10

To purchase

This book encourages us to stop, take notice of the world around us and reflect on the inner reality it contains.  Everything in nature is said to exist because it is a reflection of something of spirit. The book mainly comprises photographs of scenes and objects together with commentary regarding their psycho-spiritual significance. Some of these pictures can also be purchased as separate cards.
The suggestion is we reflect on what each picture might be saying to us about ourselves, and then read the comments provided including quotes from a variety of sources including from Swedenborg, who wrote in depth about the meaning of symbols. The authors claim that the thirty six symbols that form the heart of this book are just a start to understanding this key to both the Divine and our own personal, spiritual transformation.
I can highly recommend this book to all those interested in tuning into this higher reality, enabling more light and love to shine into our lives.                            Stephen Russell-Lacy

In engaging with symbols I can key into a universal wisdom and spirituality which I can also relate to on a personal level.  I would recommend this set of cards and book as an aid to each person’s journey towards wholeness – it’s both enriching and freeing.                                                       Helen Brown, Jungian therapist

Astrology – Mumbo jumbo or ancient wisdom?

AstrologyAstrology is an important part of popular Western culture. Just browse  through some general magazines and newspapers to see that. People often go along with the notion that the position and movements of the planets, against the backdrop of the night sky, tells them something about their personal lives. For many, a horoscope, based on their individual time of birth, might explain aspects of their personality and even predict significant events.

In astrology, each planet exercises a particular influence by its position and its aspects with respect to other planets. Astrologists give psychological distinctions to the various planets ruling over the 12 signs of the Zodiac. They say that some of these planets benefit us more than others. Yet, the position and motions of the stars and planets affect people by no scientifically understood mechanism of action.

Unfortunately, most horoscopes you see in the media only make vague untestable statements that can apply to almost anyone. On the other hand, astrologists do give individuals discriminating profiles and these have been examined in controlled experiments. But, these consistently correlate with personality, measured by other means, at a rate no higher than chance.

Sceptics say believers in astrology tend to selectively remember predictions that turn out to be true and do not remember those that turnout false. They further claim that astrological theory often shows poor reasoning and astrologists disagree among themselves.

All this doesn’t seem to matter to those many followers who do not claim astrology is a science with predictive power. Instead, they seem to want astrology to help them understand their personal lives in a way that transcends science.

So what is a fair-minded rational person to make of astrology? Has it something useful to offer even it cannot be called a science?

Night sky as symbolism

What interests me about astrology is its symbolism. I wonder whether it can  illuminate something, about the various states of mind, we experience in our life’s spiritual journey. I am attracted to the idea that there is a correspondence of natural objects in the universe – such as stars and planets – with positive and negative states of human consciousness. The most general idea behind this is expressed in the Emerald Tablet as “as above, so below”.

“Although the concept of correspondences bears some relationship to analogy, metaphor, and symbolism, it goes far beyond that. What the ancients had was not merely the observation that the human mind can use something concrete as a stand-in for something abstract. It was an understanding that everything in the universe embodies something spiritual” (Jonathan Rose)

I would suggest the natural universe mirrors both positive and negative human states of mind. For example in the world of nature on our planet we find both gentle and fierce creatures, destructive earthquakes and beautiful geographical scenes. If so, it is not a big step to say that the qualities and positions of the planets also have some correspondence with human psychology. Therefore, I would suggest the planets do not directly influence us as such but rather mirror our inner states of consciousness.

For me, this symbolism can for example be seen in the sign of Aries the Ram.

Aries the Ram

In their book ‘Twelve Qualities of a Spiritual Mind‘, Harry Barnitz and Dawn Barnitz Potts point out that the sun enters Aries at the spring equinox. And so Aries initiates the season of spring, the warmth of new light, the beginning of the year in ancient times. There is a renewed awareness of being alive and a trust in the sustaining source of light and warmth. This reminds us of the life-sustaining power of love and light present in our minds. A new vision and inspiration. A state of mind awakening to something beyond the material. An intuition which is experienced on a regular cycle throughout life – each time felt on a deeper level.

astrologyThe ram symbolises this quality of innocent trust in life.  Astrologers claim that people born under the sign of Aries the Ram are visionary and creative innovators with an active imagination and deeply perceptive mind.

This initial state of spiritual awakening still has with it much of egoism. The ram also has connotations of aggression. Shepherds know that while sheep are generally a docile animal, this is not usually the case with rams, especially during the breeding season. Rams can be very aggressive and have been known to cause serious injuries.

And so astrologers say that those born under the sign of Aries the Ram, because of the ego-mind, are also likely to be fiery, and violent because of the planet Mars which is said to rule over this first sign.

If the positive and the negative go together then it is not surprising to find a visionary awareness of and innocent trust in a spiritually sustaining source. Also it is not surprising to find the opposite illusions derived from a proud and aggressive self-reliance.

My feelings about astrology

Astrology says the planetary configuration, at the time of our birth, mirrors our individual natural disposition and quality of feeling. This fits in with the idea that we each have a unique potential. The notion that each one of us can have a distinctive and useful function in the grand scheme of things.

I suspect that astrology has a fair bit to offer in terms of spiritual guidance along these lines. By coming to understand what feelings and desires are leading the choices we make in our daily life, we can begin to see a path before us away from the things of ego-mind.

Distortion of ancient wisdom over the ages

According to Emanuel Swedenborg, many thousands of years ago people knew the real meaning of the correspondence between the natural and spiritual. However, in the process of time, this ancient wisdom was distorted. Spiritual knowledge was turned into things like witchcraft and fortune-telling. However, it may be true that that there are still glimpses of ancient truths in the customs, fables, writings and religions of all lands. I wonder if this is also the case for some things said by astrology about the Zodiac signs and their relationship to the higher life of the spirit?

Copyright 2016 Stephen Russell-Lacy
Author of  Heart, Head & Hands  Swedenborg’s perspective on emotional problems

 Posted on17th September 2016CategoriesLatest post, Meaning of life, SymbolismTags, , , ,

Communication of higher awareness.

Has a new kind of uplifting perception or intuition ever come to you? Perhaps a sense of wholeness or timelessness, or an encounter with a side to reality that goes beyond the world as we usually know it. A short moment when you sensed that something new has been revealed – something usually hidden? Communication of such illumination can be problematic.

Trying to remember this sort of deep experience can be difficult because ordinary language seems unable to capture the essence of the thing. Perhaps you would love to convey something of the positive nature of what you have gone through to your partner or close friend. But how do you do this? How does one communicate something which seems to be different from common life?

communicationVerbal and non-verbal communication

You may talk about and show your feelings using tone of voice and facial expression. But this is only a communication about how you have reacted to the experience rather than saying anything about the experience itself. You may try to use the language of religion or mysticism to describe it but often the words used by these are off-putting, ambiguous or carry connotations that are not what you are trying to get at.

In communicating your experience one approach you might try is to write a poem. This isn’t quite as daft as it seems. A lot of the world’s mystical writing is couched in verse using poetic licence to convey impressions and ideas. You don’t even have to use poetry. Prose can also employ imagery to communicate something of a deeper side to existence.

In choosing imagery you might try using simile or metaphor as follows:

Using image of mountains for communication

For example perhaps your extraordinary consciousness showed you a higher and wider perspective on things, in which case you might refer to it as a ‘mountain-top’ experience e.g. glimpsing a higher aspiration in life for yourself which might become the summit of your achievement and worth all your effort to climb to the peak. We speak of ‘faith being able to move mountains’; and so if you believe in what you are doing, you can overcome any obstacle.

Using image of olive oil for communication

Alternatively, your moment of higher awareness may have been a sense of kindness and harmony. This perception might be conveyed in terms of olive oil. Don’t we speak of ‘pouring oil on troubled waters’. This image reflects a concern for resolving discord and conflict so that calm and agreement is restored. A small act of kindness can ‘oil the wheels’ of social interaction and make things run more smoothly.

Using image of lions for communication

Your special illumination may have been catching sight of that intangible thing we call courage – perhaps having a foretaste of the kind of confidence needed to turn round and face one’s personal difficulties. Using an image of the lion may express this positive feeling, for we speak of being ‘brave as a lion’ – a creature which has every reason to be a confident being, as it is, the top predator in its natural habitat. To ‘beard the lion’ would indeed be to confront danger using divine power within.

Using image of pearls for communication

Or perhaps you have had a deep experience of inner safety and stillness. The pearl comes to mind. The pearl is valued for its lustre. We speak of an important piece of advice as a pearl of wisdom. Protected by its oyster shell, it had laid quiet and still on the sea bed. You may come to value the perception about divine protection you gained in the quietness and stillness of your meditating mind.

Using image of the sun for communication

One of the most inspiring of all inner experiences is to feel in the presence of the source of all life – the love and light without which nothing that is good could exist. This is a consciousness of cosmic energy originating and sustaining not only our physical life but also our spiritual one. The light and warmth can go out of our life when we lose a loved one. We also feel in the dark and cold when we lose a sense of the spiritual light and heat which is the source of our soul. The sun with its heat and light is a wonderful emblem of this power house for all our creativity and growth.

Swedenborg on correspondence

The well known maxim ‘As above, so below‘ means that the elements of our higher consciousness correspond to the things of nature. In his exploration of this esoteric idea, the spiritual philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg shows in a lot of detail how our higher thoughts can be communicated in terms of the natural things of the world.

Furthermore he maintains that because natural things – such as in the mineral, plant and animal kingdoms – are created by God, they can reflect what is good that comes from God.

“The whole natural order is a theatre representative of the Lord’s kingdom.” (Emanuel Swedenborg)

Corruption

However, one needs to bear in mind what he also says about some parts of nature which can represent a corruption of what comes from the Divine Source – hence the existence of what is noxious, poisonous, or otherwise harmful as well as that which is nourishing, delightful, and protective.

Communication of images from animal kingdom

Alive and moving, animals in a good sense such as the lion he says can represent human desires including higher feelings.

Communication of images from vegetable kingdom

Swedenborg maintains that plants, which have growth but not movement, like the olive tree, can represent what needs inwardly nourishing and enlivening in human beings and thus potential stages of their spiritual growth.

Communication of images from mineral kingdom

There are non-living natural things such as mountains and the sun which neither move nor grow. He says these can represent spiritual resources for human nurturing and growth and thus both the ends and beginning of human endeavour.

In other words images of natural things can convey to others our higher awareness of spiritual reality.

Copyright 2015 Stephen Russell-Lacy

Author Heart, Head & Hands

Posted on9th November 2015CategoriesConsciousness, Latest post, Meaning of life,Mystical experience, SymbolismTags, , , ,

Bible images – How to understand?

Sacred writing is also full of story, parable, prophetic vision and poetry, much of which is rich in imagery expressing, many would say, a sublime message. For example would you accept that the creation legend and its Bible images about the world being made in seven days is really allegory and not meant to be taken literally? The same might be said concerning the visions reported with all their bizarre figures and scenes.

It is widely assumed that the interpretation of metaphor is an individual matter and that one person will understand the significance of a visual picture in a different way from another. That what is true for you is not true for me.

Furthermore, it is also thought that the meaning of an image say in one book of the Bible is not likely to be the same as its use elsewhere: that where Bible images are used, their symbolic meaning appears to differ from passage to passage.

Swedenborg’s idea about Bible images

I would like to offer you for your consideration an alternative idea. This comes from the 18th century theologian Emanuel Swedenborg who held that all the content of divine revelation including images and stories in the Bible, not only reflect a deeper significance – one that is relevant to our personal daily life – but that across all the books of the Word of God there is actually a consistent symbolic language. In other words that each literally understood thing that appears in the Word corresponds in a consistent way to something spiritual.

There is only time now to give one example. However, in my reading of the biblical content, I have experienced a consistency in the deeper meaning of each of a wide range of things such as types of animal, mineral, plant, astronomical feature etc. I would like to illustrate this consistency in relation to images of height.

Bible images of height

Bible images

“I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help!” (Psalm 121:1)

Our source of inspiration is said to be the hills above us.

Bible images“As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts.” (Isaiah 55:9)

The space above the earth is associated with God’s manner of living and ideas that are said to be above mere mortal ones.

Bible images“Whoever takes refuge in me will inherit the land and possess my holy mountain.” (Isaiah 57:13)

Again what is high denotes what is holy

Apparent inconsistent Bible images

It might be objected that sometimes a mountain or hill doesn’t suggest what is our source of inspiration, higher thought, or holiness at all.

“Every mountain and hill shall be made low” (Isaiah 40:4) Are the mountains to be made low? Yes I would say so. But only if we recognise that what is being exalted is not God and the presence of the divine within us but rather its opposite. What is the opposite? Is it not the pride of ego, exalting oneself?

I would say this interpretation becomes more apparent when we consider the valleys which will be raised up high. These might be said to stand for those people who are humble in heart and so who are not too proud to acknowledge the source of what is good and true as coming from outside of themselves.

Bible images

“You have put me in the lowest pit, in the darkest depths.” (Psalm 88:6)

If what is low is distant from what is high and thus from what is Divine, then why would God put me so low as to be beneath the ground? From one perspective to be so low is to turn away from a divinely inspired way of living, as when one feels dissatisfied with life from being self-centred. But in an opposite sense I’m thinking of the pit of despair when one focuses on the hope of divine rescue – sadly a necessary attitude which we need to work through when we lose our moral and spiritual way in life. We sometimes need to learn that trusting mainly in one’s own strength or the things of the world is to no avail and that all that is good really comes from the Divine. This is a painful lesson for many but one God sees we may need if we are to find salvation.

Bible images – summary

I would suggest that sacred writing will not give glib answers and superficial understanding. In his idea of correspondences, Swedenborg claims that the significance of a biblical image can have one of two opposite meanings according to the passage in question. There is still a consistency here – just one that is not apparent until we recognise which sense is being revealed.

Positive sense Opposite negative sense
Elevation of mountain or hill Inspiration of higher thought Pride of self-exaltation
Lowness of valley or pit Humble acknowledgement of Divine Source Dissatisfaction arising from self-centredness

 

Considering whether the imagery is to be understood in a positive or negative sense will stretch our minds and require reading in a deeply reflective manner.

The doctrine of correspondences is no easy cook-book of symbol interpretation. Whether a positive or negative meaning is present, still requires our effort to find the truth.

Copyright 2015 Stephen Russell-Lacy
Author of  Heart, Head & Hands  Swedenborg’s perspective on emotional problems

Posted on12th February 2015CategoriesLatest post, Meaning of life, SymbolismTags, , , ,

Animals – Can they teach us spiritual lessons?

animalsWith the improvements in technology, close up and dramatic footage of behaviour of animals has become a top focus for television documentary programmes.

Behaviour of animals

We are amazed by the myriads of flying starlings forming beautiful patterns like clouds in the evening sky, the protection and encouragement of its cub by the polar bear, and the behaviour of sting ray fish as they appear to fly above the water to help in the hunting of their prey.

All this fascinating information stimulates the question about what such creatures might be able to teach us about our own lives.

animal

We see a brave lion caught on film with a huge roar as it fearlessly challenges a vicious looking crocodile at the water’s edge, successfully protecting the lioness and cubs and we wonder what reserves of courage we could call on to face the adversities in human life?

Similes for animals

Is it anthropomorphic to notice when someone is happy as a lark, busy as a bee, gentle as a lamb, slippery as an eel, proud as a peacock, sly as a fox, as angry as a hornet, slow as a snail, strong as an ox, or as stubborn as a mule? Or is it just recognizing that nature can mirror what we might find in ourselves if we were to look a little more closely?

Animals and correspondence

This idea of correspondence between the natural and the spiritual is an important part of Emanuel Swedenborg’s philosophy. The medieval alchemists put it this way:

“As above, so below; as below, so above”

And in their book Soul Symbols, Helen Newton and Becky Jarratt show how we can learn much about the human spirit by watching what nature is teaching us.  Images of animals have a symbolic value in that they bring something about what it is to be human  into ordinary awareness. They provide meaning and enrich our understanding of humanity.

Two perspectives on images of animals

The authors point out this works in two ways. They distinguish between two perspectives. Depending on one’s state of mind, one can perceive a symbol such as an animal, in terms of soul perspective or in terms of ego perspective.

The soul perspective derives from a transcendent reality and gives us a higher wisdom. The ego perspective however comes from our inevitable sense of separateness from the creative source of life, a state of mind that falls into illusions about what is good and true to suit our own individual needs.

animalsSnakes

How might these ideas apply to different animals? Take snakes. The gliding, insinuating motion of a snake is of course due to the fact that it has no feet. The point that it is in close contact with the ground doesn’t suggest a higher state of mind but rather an external one. From an ego perspective one might say the snake symbolises an orientation towards the world and enjoyment of the senses — pleasant taste, smell, sound, sight and touch. Physical pleasure is good, but it is important to notice when something spiritual is missing.

We should not trust our senses, which can give us a distorted view of reality, but should look to our ‘inner code’ for guidance.” (Helen Newton and Becky Jarratt)

From a soul perspective on the snake, one might say the senses are our point of contact with the world, and their enjoyments enable us to live wisely in the world. The sense of feeling warns us to avoid extreme heat and cold and other dangers, and to preserve healthful conditions. The sense of taste when unperverted and wisely educated is a guide in choosing wholesome food.

“I am sending you out like sheep among wolves. Therefore be as shrewd as snakes  and as innocent as doves.” (Matthew 10:15-17)

Copyright 2013 Stephen Russell-Lacy
Author of  Heart, Head & Hands  Swedenborg’s perspective on emotional problems

Posted on18th September 2013CategoriesMeaning of life, Symbolism

How do I find my spiritual source?

Experiencing my centre and spiritual source isn’t something that just happens for me. I find I need to make a conscious effort to search out this higher power and that means turning in the right direction. But you can’t turn round unless you first recognise which way you are currently facing.

Perhaps this is why I couldn’t write this article yesterday. There was ample time available and plenty of peace and quiet around me. But to focus your mind on something as profound as one’s spiritual source you really have to be in the right place within yourself. And I just wasn’t there. Too busy hankering after something that I know deep down isn’t part of the uplifting journey of my life. Too occupied with what I greedily wanted rather than prioritising food for the soul. I had to remind myself that if I really wanted the creative juices to flow, and get some inspiration, then I really must stop indulging in what is harmful to my inner life and instead turn towards something higher and better.

spiritual sourceThe sun as a symbol of the spiritual source

One symbol for what is highest and best that I find helpful is that of the sun. Without its warmth and light no plant would grow or animal survive. Likewise, is there not a fundamental centre to existence that supplies us with loving feeling and enlightened thought? Without a divine source for warmth and light, how can humanity develop and prosper?

The sun appears to us as small, yet it is really enormous. Similarly, although the creative source of all that we know is infinite, doesn’t it seem to us that, when we are wrapped up in our own concerns, the God of religion is small and often goes without notice?

The sun hides away at night and there is darkness but really, it is there all the time: it is just that as the earth spins on its axis, we occasionally turn away and face the opposite direction. Don’t we also have times when we feel perplexed and puzzled trying to see our way through the difficulties of daily living? It seems to us at the time that we are in the dark about what to do for the best. Perhaps we are facing in the wrong direction.

We think the sun’s heat and light is different in summer and winter but actually they never vary. It is only the tilt of the earth in its orbit that causes the seasons. In the same way, don’t we at times turn our backs on loving feelings and the light of true conscience, thus tilting ourselves away from the principles which had guided our life?  Love and light were there all the time, just hidden by our worry, fear, and negative mood.

Conscious turning towards our spiritual source

All this highlights for me the need for a conscious turning towards my spiritual source. Without effort to take stock and reflect on my inner state, I am not going to notice my complacency. Only when I remember just how much my life needs to turn round, and how inadequate I am of myself for this task of personal transformation, am I energised to try to seek the spiritual power that can really improve me. Only when I turn towards my spiritual sun can I hope to receive the gift of genuine warm-heartedness and illuminated insight. Only when I throw away the illusion that love and light are hidden will I trust I can find them again.

“In order to find God, and to become changed into the Divine likeness, and to pass from death into life, we have to seek God with great fervour and intensity.  We seem to be encased in a hard shell of complacency; or to be suffering from an hypnotic spell, which prevents us from becoming sufficiently awake and alert and in earnest to seek God and Reality in such a way as to bring results.” (Christian mystic, HT Hamblin)

Copyright 2013 Stephen Russell-Lacy
Author of Heart, Head & Hands Swedenborg’s perspective on emotional problems