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What happened, with the birth, life, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth? Was he the Messiah, the Christ, whose coming was prophesied many times in the Old Testament? In the Christian religion, we believe that he was. In New Christian thought, we emphasize that this miracle was that God took on a human form, being born as a baby to Mary, a virgin, in Bethlehem.

We believe that Jesus grew, learned, and prepared himself to teach, and heal, and inspire people in such a powerful way that the course of human history would change. He performed miracles here, while he lived on earth. After his crucifixion and resurrection, he was seen several times by his followers, whose spiritual eyes were opened.

In his lifetime, battling the power of hell, he opened the way for the new truths that he taught – loving the Lord, and the neighbor, and about repentance, and reformation, and forgiveness, and rebirth. These truths formed the basis of Christianity, which grew from its inception in Jerusalem and Galilee, to spread throughout many parts of the world.


The True Spiritual Meaning of the Cross and Resurrection: Christus Victor

As Easter approaches, many are going to be reminded of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. It is the central event of Christianity, yet very few truly understand how salvation was effected by this. Many are taught that our sins are transferred to Jesus on the cross, and that by this act Jesus removed the “penalty of sin.” I heard that phrase mentioned again recently, but here is the fact: nowhere in scripture does it teach that Jesus removed the penalty of sin on the cross. So what happened? Is there a rational explanation for Christianity? Why did God need to become incarnate in human form? What is the meaning of the cross and resurrection? Why was this necessary for salvation?


In the gospels, the cross was an extreme form of torture, signifying how the Jews had completely rejected and profaned the Divine truth. In later times, men started to apply false theological meanings to the cross, where today the suffering of the cross is seen as a means of salvation. But this is an apparent truth. The spiritual truth is much deeper.

“It is a common belief at this day that the burnt offerings and sacrifices signified the Lord’s passion, and that by this the Lord made expiation for the iniquities of all, indeed, that He drew them away upon Himself, and thus bore them; and that those who believe are in this manner justified and saved, provided they think, though but in the last hour before death, that the Lord suffered for them, however they may have lived during the whole course of their life. But the case is not really so: the passion of the cross was the extremity of the Lord’s temptation, by which He fully united His Human to His Divine and His Divine to His Human, and thus glorified Himself. That union is itself the means by which those who have the faith in Him which is the faith of charity, can be saved. For the Supreme Divine Itself could no longer reach to the human race, which had removed itself so far from the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith, that they no longer even acknowledged them, and still less perceived them. In order therefore that the Supreme Divine might be able to come down to man who was such, the Lord came into the world and united His Human to the Divine in Himself; which union could not be effected otherwise than by the most grievous combats of temptations and by victories, and at length by the last, which was that of the cross.” (Heavenly Arcana, n. 2776.2)

In other words, no sins are transferred at the cross. This is a later theological invention, which first became prominent in the Catholic Church, and from the Catholic Church the Protestants adopted it. It is not followed by the Orthodox church which preceded the other two main branches of Christianity. The New Church explains this further: salvation was effected by transforming the human form into a Divine Human, which was done by spiritual combats and temptations in a spiritual warfare against the powers of hell. The suffering on the cross is merely the last temptation that preceded the union of the Divine with the human form:

“As to [the Passover, or Easter] it is to be known that it specially signifies the glorification of the Lord’s Human, thus the remembrance of this and thanksgiving on account of it, for by this glorification and the subjugation of the hells by the Lord, man has liberation from evils and salvation. For the Lord glorified His Human by combats against the hells and then by continual victories over them. The last combat and victory was on the cross; wherefore He then fully glorified Himself, as He also teaches in John: When he [Judas] was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in Him. If God is glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him (xiii. 31, 32).” (Heavenly Arcana, n. 10655.2)


“The Lord came into the world that He might save the human race, which otherwise would have perished in eternal death. And He saved the race by this, that He subdued the hells which were infesting every man that came into the world and that went out of the world, and at the same time by this, that He glorified His Human, for thereby He can hold the hells under subjection to eternity. The subjugation of the hells and the glorification of His Human at the same time were effected by temptations admitted into His Human and then by continual victories. His passion on the cross was the last temptation and the full victory.” (Heavenly Arcana, n. 10828)

This was necessary, as now the Divine can interact directly with humanity which had become separated from heaven in this lower material plane. I say this “material plane,” because above and below this material plane there are higher spiritual planes of heaven, and lower planes of hell. Human life on this material plane is governed by spirits from both planes:

“That it was also for the sake of liberation from evil and from falsities of evil, is because by the subjugation of the hells by the Lord and by the glorification of His Human is all liberation from evil, and there is none without these means. For man is ruled by spirits from hell and by angels out of heaven from the Lord. Wherefore unless the hells had been altogether subjugated and unless the Human of the Lord had been altogether united to the Divine Itself, and thus also made Divine, no man could ever have been liberated from hell and saved, for the hells would always have prevailed, since man has become such that of himself he thinks nothing but what is of hell.” (Heavenly Arcana, n. 10655.4)

These planes of heaven and hell are dimensional planes, that exist where space and time have no meaning, but they interact with us in this material plane from within, to govern how we think and act.


What this means, is that the doctrine of vicarious atonement, which is presently the foundation of theology for the Catholic and Protestant churches, is patently false. It encourages people to think they can get away with the sins of their life through mere belief, which is not the case. It has to be removed through repentance:

“It is believed by most persons within the church that the Lord came into the world that He might reconcile the Father by the passion of the cross, and that afterward they might be accepted for whom He should intercede, also that He released man from damnation by this, that He also fulfilled the law, which otherwise would have condemned every one, and thus that all would be saved who should hold that faith with confidence and trust. But they who are in any enlightenment from heaven may see that it cannot be that the Divine, which is Love itself and Mercy itself, could reject from Itself and condemn to hell the human race, and that It had to be reconciled by Its Son’s passion of the cross, and that in this way and in no other way It was moved with mercy, and that henceforth the life should not condemn any one if only he had a confident faith concerning that reconciliation, and that all salvation is effected by faith from mercy. They who so think and believe can see nothing at all. They speak but understand nothing. They therefore call those things mysteries which are to be believed but not apprehended by any understanding. So it follows that all enlightenment from the Word, showing the case to be otherwise, is rejected; for light from heaven cannot enter when such darkness from contradictions reigns. It is said darkness, because there is no understanding.” (Heavenly Arcana, n. 10659.2)

A “mystery of faith” means not only is it not understood, but also it has no rational justification. This keeps the majority of people in ignorance, and to maintain that ignorance many churches resort to the logical fallacy of argument from authority: it must be true because we said it was true. This closes off the higher spiritual understanding (see Truth by Religious Tradition & Authority vs. Spiritual Truth).

“The Lord came into the world in order that He might subjugate the hells and reduce all things there and in the heavens into order, and that this could not in any wise be effected except by the Human; for from this He could fight against the hells, but not from the Divine without the Human; and so also that He might glorify His Human in order that thereby He might for ever hold all things in the order into which He reduced them. Thereby is man’s salvation; for around every man are hells, inasmuch as every one is born into evils of every kind, and where evils are, there are hells, and unless these were cast out by the Divine power of the Lord, no one ever could have been saved.” (Heavenly Arcana, n. 10659.3)


The other falsehood: no one is saved by immediate mercy. There is no such thing as instantaneous conversion:. Salvation is turning away from evil, and living by God’s commandments:

“To be led away from evils, to be regenerated, and thus to be saved, is mercy, which is not immediate, as is believed, but mediate, that is, to those who recede from evils and so admit truth of faith and good of love into their life from the Lord. Immediate mercy, namely, such as would extend to every one merely from the good pleasure of God, is contrary to Divine order, and that which is contrary to Divine order is contrary to God, since order is from God and His Divine in heaven is order. To receive order into one’s self is to be saved, and this is effected solely by living according to the Lord’s commandments. Man is regenerated to the end that he may receive into himself the order of heaven, and he is regenerated by faith and by the life of faith, which is charity. He who has order in himself is in heaven, and indeed is heaven in a certain image, but he who has not is in hell and is hell in a certain image. The one cannot in any wise be changed and transcribed into the other from immediate mercy, for they are opposites, inasmuch as evil is opposite to good, and in good is life and heaven, but in evil is death and hell. That the one cannot be transcribed into the other the Lord teaches in Luke: Abraham said unto the rich man in hell, Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can they cross from thence to us (xvi. 26). If indeed immediate mercy were given, all would be saved, as many as are in the world, neither would there be a hell, for the Lord is Mercy itself because He is Love itself, which wills the salvation of all and the death of no one.” (Heavenly Arcana, n. 10659.4)


As Jehovah became incarnate, and fought off the hells in temptations in His human until the very human was united and one with the Divine, so each one of us must recognize temptation and fight against it.  This is the process of reformation and spiritual regeneration. The work that the Lord did goes hand in hand with one’s spiritual development. He did not want us to be lazy, and just believe. Spiritual development transforms one’s life in how one lives, and one must put effort into it for the Lord to act from within. Belief alone does not save, and there is no faith without withdrawing from evil and doing good. But evil must be removed before good can become implanted in one’s heart, and there is no way to do this except through temptation, and resisting it with the Lord’s help.

That the Lord’s passion, death and resurrection is a type for all of us to follow is declared by Paul:

Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection: Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.” (Rom. 6:4-6)

The doctrines of the New Church explain this further: in the Lord there was a complete union between the Divine and His human form, until He became a Divine Human. This Divine Human is the Son (not a separate person as others would have you believe). However in each of us, there is not a union of the Divine with our human nature, but a conjunction between ourselves and the Divine. It is through repentance that there is the taking away of sins through the Lord:

“Something shall now be said as to what is meant by taking away sins. By taking away sins the like is meant as by redeeming man and saving him; for the Lord came into the world that man might be saved. Without His Coming, no mortal could have been reformed and regenerated, and thus saved; but this could be done after the Lord had taken away all power from the Devil, that is, from hell, and had glorified His Human, that is, united it to the Divine of His Father. If these things had not been done, no man would have been able to receive any Divine truth that would remain with him, and still less any Divine good; for the Devil, who before had superior power, would have plucked them out of his heart. From these things, it is manifest that the Lord did not take away sins by the passion of the cross, but that He takes them away, that is, removes them, in those who believe in Him, in living according to His commandments; as the Lord also teaches in Matthew: Think not that I am come to destroy the Law and the Prophets. Whosoever shall break the least of these commandments, and shall teach men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heavens; but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of the heavens (v. 17, 19).” (Doctrine of the Lord, n. 17)

In effect, the path to salvation did not change between the Old and New Testaments, it was preserved, and a new spiritual means was given in greater spiritual light. Unfortunately, due to false teachings, many ignore the Old Testament. It was through this union whereby the Lord has conjunction with the entire human race through good and truth, where He lives inside each one of us:

Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me. (Rev. 3:20)


The doctrine of the New Church, how the Lord saved humanity by the union of the Divine with the Human is spelled out in more detail in The Doctrine of the Lord (part of The Doctrines of the New Jerusalem) and True Christian Religion (both are found in The Divine Revelation of the New Jerusalem). The passion of the cross is distinct from redemption and salvation, but was yet a means to it.  This of course is going to be new to many, but those of the Orthodox church will say, “I told you so,” although they treat it as somewhat a mystery without explanation.  In modern theology, this is known as “Christus Victor” and is seeing somewhat of a revival: see A Rational Explanation for Atonement: Christus Victor, the Divine Human. This was the original doctrine of Christianity which has been lost, and now restored or “resurrected” from the dead. The doctrine of the New Church is not exactly “new,” it can be found in scattered references of the early church fathers before false theology entered the church. The doctrines of the New Church explains why the Jehovah became incarnate, why He suffered from the cross, and why He rose from the dead, in much more spiritual detail than ever before. These revelations, along with revealing the internal spiritual sense of scripture, is the Second Coming (see Is the Second Coming a Physical Event or Spiritual Event?)

 Wednesday, April 12, 2017



An Easter Sermon by Rev. Frederick M. ChapinApril 16, 1995


Then Jesus said to them, ‘Children, have you any food?’ They answered Him, ‘No.’ And He said to them, ‘Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some [fish].’ So they cast, and now they were not able to draw it in because of the multitude of fish. (JN 21:5&6)

The Lord’s resurrection ushered in a new way of worshipping God. We have more freedom to express our love and devotion to the Lord. No longer are we restricted to comply with specific external laws and rituals. There are now a variety of expressions that can show our inmost appreciation towards the Lord. We now have the opportunity to have an internal relationship with the Lord. Our union with the Lord will not be centered exclusively upon performing a certain set of rituals. Now, our association with the Lord is determined by the quality of our love towards Him. The Lord described the genuine worship that He was establishing when He told the Samaritan woman at the well:


But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth; for the Father is seeking such to worship Him. God is a Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth. (JN 4:23&24)

Worship of the Lord is now established according to our willingness to comply with His instructions regarding what our loves, thoughts, and delights should be.

Just as the Lord’s resurrection introduced a more sincere worship of God for the human race, so too do the events that surrounded the Lord’s resurrection picture a personal renewal that can happen continually in our lives. We can perpetually recognize the Lord’s love and mercy in greater light that will increase throughout eternity. This ever increasing light can give us an elevated sense of freedom and a greater assurance that we can make a significant contribution towards the Lord’s creation. The more we see the Lord Jesus Christ as the one God of Heaven and Earth, and recognize the steps that we must take to have a closer bond with Him, the more fulfilling our lives will be. This is the beauty of the Lord’s resurrection that can be personally experienced within us over and over again.

The teaching of having a greater sense of fulfillment can be especially seen in the incident of the disciples gathering a large number of fish. This wonderful story can illustrate how we can emerge from a period of confusion to one where we can have a clear direction which our lives should take and how we can have a positive influence upon other people. The more we can see this taking place in our lives, the more we are sensing the Lord making a personal resurrection within us. This sense will make our lives more satisfying and effective.

The incident begins with Peter and some other disciples fishing at night and catching nothing. This depicts our striving for a sense of achievement from self. Without the Lord directing our lives, the contentment we want will be illusive. We actually seek fulfillment from self when we do not have a complete and heartfelt recognition of our need for the Lord. We may confess our reliance upon the Lord with our lips, but our innermost attitude could be one of believing that it is possible for us alone to determine, from our own instincts and judgements, what should be applied to our lives. There is an element of believing that we can act somewhat independently of the Lord and still provide good things for ourselves and for others. So long as this is the case, our lives will not be as rewarding.

However, in the morning, when the sun was rising for a new day, the disciples saw the Lord on the shore. This pictures a new perspective of looking at our lives and what we really require. This new acknowledgment enables us to truly recognize that from ourselves, we will not find the fulfillment that can endure for ever. Within this sincere awareness, there is the recognition of our dependency upon the Lord to give us a genuine sense of purpose and satisfaction for what we are able to do.

Yet, the disciples did not know that it was the Lord on the shore. There is still the desire to determine for ourselves how we should live. We may recognize and confess our need for the Lord’s presence in our lives, but deep within us, we would rather it be different. We would still desire that we make the determinations of what we can indulge in. Acting strictly from self is a subtle desire we all must face, regardless of how strong we may believe our devotion towards the Lord is. However, even though this recognition is not entirely pure, it still is the beginning of a new attitude of living. We see the Lord at a distance, but inwardly we do not want to recognize Him. Only when we truly delight in the Lord’s leading will we genuinely find a Christian life stimulating and fulfilling.

But to reach this point, we must be willing to undergo major changes in our lives. To grow there must be a willingness to accept some form of change. If there is no willingness to change, there will be no growth. This is true for both our natural lives and our spiritual lives. We advance towards a closer bond with the Lord only when we are willing to make the necessary changes in our attitudes and in our manner of living. All growth has some element of change. The disciples were told that for them to catch fish, they had to change from fishing on the left side of the boat to the right side. Likewise, we must be willing to make fundamental changes in our lives to be able to receive the Lord’s guidance. The Lord simply will not be recognized so long as we are unwilling to alter our perspectives and delights where necessary. However, it is wonderful that the Word teaches us how we can prepare ourselves to be willing to undergo and endure changes. The more we are conjoined with the Lord, the more we will embrace the necessary changes that leads to an even closer bond with Him.

Furthermore, there was a significant reason why the Lord told His disciples to cast their net on the right side of the boat. It was far more pivotal than just catching fish. This change pictures going from an attitude of simply obeying the Lord from compulsion to one of obeying the Lord from love. When we begin to make the necessary adjustments to spiritually grow in the Lord, they will be uncomfortable at first. But the Lord desires that we change so the love we have towards Him will grow. It is only when we find delight in what the Lord requires of us that a conjunction with the Lord will take place. The right side of the boat pictures learning truths from a love towards the Lord. The motivation will not be on self-advantage or to avoid bad things from happening to us, but from a simple desire to learn what the Lord wants us to do, because we want to be closer to Him.

When this perspective in life develops within us, our spiritual degree of life will rule our natural degree. This means that our sensual pleasures will be under the dictate of complying with the Lord’s commandments. When this happens, our moral principles will not wander, like the fish in the open waters. Instead, they will be orderly contained within the doctrine of life we draw from the Word. Our personal doctrine of life is the net with the multitude of fish. The net is our basic and most fundamental philosophy of life. When our doctrine is directed from the Lord, it will have a multitude of knowledge of knowing how good affections and thoughts can be established in our lives. This is the multitude of fish that was in the net when they cast it from the right side of the boat.

It is interesting that despite the great number of fish, the net did not break. This is far different than what happened at an earlier time, when a similar incident took place, which we read of in our lesson from the Gospel of Luke. At that time the net did break. However, this time, the net was stronger. The same was true regarding the disciple’s inward attitudes and thoughts towards the Lord. There was a stronger devotion to follow Him and a stronger understanding of what the Lord wanted them to do. As a result, their doctrine of life could contain a more in-depth understanding about the Lord and the quality of life they were to live. This subtle comparison is displayed by the net not breaking. Our basic principles of life can also contain more wisdom and appreciation of the Lord’s teachings, as we proceed closer to Him. It is interesting to note that when the disciples saw the tremendous number of fish, they were seized with a fear. Peter especially showed this when he plunged into the water because he was naked. We are reminded of Adam, when he hid himself from God, because of his nakedness, after he ate of the forbidden fruit. However, there is a difference between Peter and Adam. Adam hid from the Lord because of a direct disobedience to the Lord’s command. He was afraid of the wrath of God punishing him. Peter’s reaction was more positive. Peter was appalled that the Lord, Who is infinitely good and pure, should see his nakedness. Peter was afraid, not so much from what might happen to him, but from a perceived unworthiness to be in the Lord’s presence in such a condition. Nakedness pictures our inner most secrets and desires becoming exposed. When we are sensing the Lord’s presence, the disorders of our innermost thoughts are plainly seen. This can lead to a fear. Yet, this is a holy fear. It is a fear that our failures and shortcomings will impede our bond with the Lord. It is not a fear primarily based upon avoiding the punishments that can be afflicted upon us. Instead, this fear is that harm will be done to our reception of the Lord. This holy fear provides the basis of removing the hidden impurities from our lives. Only when we want them removed will we be able to come before the Lord.

And when they did come to shore, the Lord already had some fish laid out over coals for them to eat. It is significant to note that in the story, the Lord invited the disciples to place their fish with His. This is a beautiful picture of the Lord inviting our heavenly affections and light, which are appropriated to us, to be conjoined with His Divine love and wisdom. This is the reason for the Lord’s coming to the earth and is the very core for our celebration of the Lord’s resurrection. It was at the Lord’s resurrection that such an internal conjunction between the Lord and ourselves was established and made possible.

The Lord’s resurrection brought in a new approach which has allowed our worship to be more genuine. The more we can take advantage of the opportunity that the Lord has provided for us, the more we will value His resurrection. And at the same time, we will find the Lord providing a life before us that is established in His peace and joy. There is no greater feeling of accomplishment than to do what the Lord has created us for. The Lord has enabled all of us to sincerely worship Him and to express genuine charity towards others. This is the foundation of the joy we celebrate today. It is by the Lord’s resurrection that He fully accomplished these blessed words, “I have come that you may have life, and that you may have it more abundantly.” (REF)

Resurrection after Death

Chapter 4Resurrection after Death
According to the doctrines of the New Church, death and resurrection are the same event in different aspects. The death of the material body is the natural side of it, and consequently it is all we can see while we are in this world. Resurrection is the spiritual side. The material body is left behind and turns to dust. We rise out of it. We are withdrawn from the body as the hand is withdrawn from a glove; and when the separation of the spiritual from the material body is fully effected, we stand a complete person in the spiritual world, with all our senses and our whole organism perfectly adapted to it. We have lost no more than the sparrow loses when it breaks its shell. When the material body dies, we rise. We do not wait for unknown ages, and flit about nowhere, and no-body, waiting for a general resurrection of the material body, that we may crawl back into his old prison and resume its chains. We have left nothing behind that can ever be useful to us again. The beautiful moth never becomes a worm. The sparrow never folds its wings, closes its eyes to the new world in which it has rejoiced for a brief summer, and becomes reinvested with its old shell. So it is with us. The material body returns to the ground whence it was taken. “Earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust.” The spiritual body is raised up into the spiritual world, its proper home, where it will dwell forever.The statement of Swedenborg on the subject is as follows:

“When the body is no longer able to perform its functions in the natural world, corresponding to the thoughts and affections of its spirit, which it has from the spiritual world, then the person is said to die. This takes place when the respiratory motions of the lungs and the systolic motions of the heart cease; but still a person does not die, but is only separated from the corporeal part, which was of use to them in the world; for the person him or her self lives. It is said that the person themself lives, because a person is not a person from the body, but from the spirit, since the spirit thinks in a person, and thought with affection makes a person. Hence it is evident that a person, when they die, only passes from one world into another.” (Heaven and Hell, no. 445)

He then goes on to say, “that man is man from his spirit, and not from his body; and that the corporeal form is added to the spirit according to the form of the spirit and not the reverse; for the spirit is clothed with a body according to its own form; wherefore the spirit of a person acts into the minutest particulars of the body, insomuch that the part which is not actuated by the spirit, or in which the spirit is not acting, does not live. That this is so, may be known to every one from this alone; that thought and will actuate each and all things of the body with such entire command, that everything concurs, and whatever does not concur is not a part of the body, and is also cast out as something in which is no life; thought and will are of the spirit of man, and not of the body.” (no. 453) “When a person enters the spiritual world, or the life after death, they are in a body as in the world; to appearance there is no difference, and he or she does not perceive nor see any difference. But their body is then spiritual, and thus separated or purified from earthly things, and when what is spiritual touches and sees what is spiritual, it is just as when what is natural touches and sees what is natural; hence a person, when they have become a spirit, does not know otherwise than that they are in their body in which they were in the world, and thus does not know [at first] that they are deceased. A person’s spirit also enjoys every external and internal sense which they enjoyed in the world; they see as before; they hear and speak as before; they also smell and taste, and when they are touched they feel the touch as before; they also long, desires, crave, think, reflect, re affected, love, will, as before; and they who delight in studies reads and writes as before. In a word, when a person passes from one life into the other, or from one world into the other, it is as if they passed from one place into another; and they carry with them all things which they possessed in themselves as a person, so that it cannot be said that the person after death, which is only the death of the earthly body, has lost anything of themselves. They also carries with they the natural memory, for they retain all things whatsoever which they had in the world heard, seen, read, learned, and thought, from earliest infancy even to the end of life.

“But still the difference between the life of people in the spiritual world and their life in the natural world is great, as well with respect to the external senses and their affections, as with respect to the internal senses and their affections. Those who are in heaven perceive by the senses, that is, they see and hear, much more exquisitely, and also think more wisely, than when they were in the world.

“The difference of these external senses is as the difference between sunshine and the obscurity of mist in the world, and as the difference between the light at midday and the shade at evening.” (nos. 461, 462)

Such is a concise and simple statement of the belief of the New Church concerning that change in man called resurrection. It differs from the doctrines usually received in every particular.

1. It declares that the spirit is the real and only person, and the whole of the person.

The common doctrine practically regards the body as the real person, and the spirit as some vital principle, or motive power which animates the m person an; but of which, by itself, we can form no conception, and, therefore, it teaches us to look for the resurrection of the same body we deposit in the grave; it teaches us that the spirit comes back and reenters the material elements newly organized, and until this reunion is effected, neither the spirit nor the body is a complete man. The New Church teaches that human beings are spirits, and have a material body during the first stage of their being; the earlier idea was that human beings are a material body, and have a spirit.

2. The New Church teaches that the resurrection consists in the withdrawal from the material body and raising up into the spiritual world of the person themselves.

The old doctrine declares that the material body is raised up from the grave and the spirit brought back from wherever it may dwell during its separation from the body, reenters it, and becomes its life.

3. According to the doctrines of the New Church, death and resurrection are two aspects of the same event.

According to traditional doctrine, the resurrection of the material body is to take place at some distant period at the end of the world. The doctrines differ, then, in three particulars; the subject ofthe resurrection, the manner of the resurrection, and the time in which it is effected. The New Church believes that it is the spirit which is raised; the previous idea was that it is the body. The New teaches that the simple act of resurrection is the separation of the soul from the body; the previous that it is the reunion of the soul and body. The New declares that people rise immediately after the death of the body; the previous that they will not rise until some unknown period at the end of the world.

Having thus stated the doctrine of the New Church concerning the resurrection, as taught in the writings of Swedenborg, and, as we believe, in the Bible, I invite your attention to some of the Scriptural and rational grounds of this faith.

1st. We have endeavored in a former chapter to show that man and his spirit are the same. It is necessary to keep this truth distinctly before us, that we may know what and whom we are talking about when we speak of our resurrection. We do not mean that our tools; our material mechanism; our material garments, which were continually changing while they clothed us, are the subject of resurrection. We do not mean oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and iron, even when cunningly woven into nerve and muscle, into brain and heart. We do mean that wonderful spiritual being who formed these dead elements into this delicate and complex miracle, the human body; who lived in it, acted through it, carried it about in all the paths of life, preserved it from decay, gave it a sensitive and conscious existence, and so wielded it to his own purposes and molded it to our own form, that multitudes have mistaken the dead image for the living being. They are now looking down into the grave for the re-awakening and restoration to life of those who have entered the shining portals of heaven, and who, now free from the burden of matter, are clothed with a beauty, and are enjoying a blessedness, which we who yet dwell in these tents of clay cannot conceive, and much less express.

2nd. We are now prepared to examine our second point, which is: That this resurrection consists essentially in the withdrawal of a person from their material body, and not in raising to life the body itself. This would follow as a necessary consequence, from our first position, that people are really spiritual beings, and take nothing of their humanity from the material body, not even their form. But there are positive considerations which tend powerfully to the same conclusion.

I. The original word anastasis, translated “resurrection,” exactly expresses the New Church idea of the change that actually takes place in man at his resurrection. It has no such meaning as raising up to life again in this world. It means a continuance of existence after the death of the body. Our Lord’s argument with the Sadducees, shows that it has this meaning beyond question. But that no one may think this interpretation of the word is peculiar to the New Church, or that there is any attempt to wrest it from its true meaning, I will quote a passage from a sermon of Dr. Dwight, of New Haven, upon the resurrection.

“This word anastasis,” he says, “is commonly, but often erroneously, translated resurrection. So far as I have observed, it usually denotes our existence beyond the grave…. Many passages of Scripture would have been rendered more intelligible, and the thoughts contained in them more just and impressive, had this word been translated agreeably to its real meaning. This observation will be sufficiently illustrated by a recurrence to that remarkable passage which contains the dispute between our Savior and the Sadducees. ‘Then came unto him,’ says the Evangelist, ‘the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection;’ that is, that there is no future state, or no future existence of mankind. They declare seven brothers to have married successively one wife, who survived them all. Then they ask, ‘Whose wife shall she be in the resurrection?’ – in the future state? Our Savior answers, ‘In the resurrection,’ or, as it should be rendered, ‘in the future state, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven. But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God?’ or, as it ought to be rendered, ‘Have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God concerning the future life of those who are dead, saying, I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.’ This passage, were we at any loss concerning the meaning of the word anastasis, determines it beyond dispute. The proof that there is an ‘anastasis’ of the dead alleged by our Savior, is the declaration of God to Moses, ‘ I am the God of Abraham,’ &c., and the irresistible truth that God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. The consequence is, every one who reads the Bible knows that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were living at the time when this declaration was made. Those who die, therefore, live after they are dead; and this future life is the ‘anastasis,’ which is proved by our Savior in this passage, and which is universally denoted by this term throughout the New Testament.”

The common idea of the resurrection, namely that it consists in bringing the spirit back from the spiritual world, and in the restoration to life of the dead bodies deposited in the tomb, is not derived from this word. It was rather put into it to make the Scripture conform to preconceived ideas. The word has no reference to the body.

2. But again: There is nothing said in the Bible about the resurrection of the body, as there necessarily would not be if the original term means a continuance of life in the Spiritual World. There is much said about the continuance of life after death; or, to use the common term, of the resurrection from the dead, or of the dead; but the terms resurrection of the body or of the flesh are nowhere to be found, because there is no such idea or truth in the Bible to express.

This was the idea of a certain class of Jews, and when it was expressed, at least on one memorable occasion, our Lord corrected it. When He said to Martha, “Thy brother shall rise again,” she answered, according to the common doctrine of the time, “I know he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.” What was the reply? Was it an assent to this doctrine, as it naturally would have been if it was true? Did our Lord say, “True, the body you have deposited in the tomb would be raised up again at the end of the world. But, as a special favor, I will restore your brother to life now, though he will again pass into the tomb, and await the final resurrection?” No, nothing of this; “I am the resurrection and the life; he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live; and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die.”

The life and the death He referred to could not have been the life or death of the body. They must refer to the life or death of the a person themselves – of their soul. It is the same as though He had said, “You are mistaken, Martha, in supposing that the body is to be raised up at the last day. The true resurrection is that of the spirit. Those who are truly alive, who live and believe in Me, can never die. And though they are dead, if they will exercise a living belief in Me, they shall live. I am,” not I will be; “I am the resurrection and the life now, to all who will receive life from Me.” You see how entirely the body is ignored in this reply, as though it was of no consequence. If a person is spiritually alive now, they can never die. Their separation from the material body does not touch his their any more than the change of clothes. – And if they are spiritually dead, destroying the material body will not make them any more dead. The Lord always strives to lift us above the merely natural idea; to raise us out of the grave of the natural and temporary to the spiritual and eternal. He gives a new spiritual meaning to those terms and ideas to which the sensuous-minded Jew had attached only a material one. “The words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.”

This principle shows us how we must understand the 28th and 29th verses of the fifth chapter of John, which probably contain the strongest statement of the doctrine of the resurrection of the material body to be found in the Bible. “Marvel not at this,” the Lord says, “for the hour is coming in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth; they that have done good unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil unto the resurrection of damnation.” But just before He had said, “The hour is coming, and now is,when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live.” And in the preceding verse, “He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life.” He “is passed from death unto life.”

By those who are in their graves are evidently meant the same as the dead in the preceding verse, and there it is said, “The hour is coming, and now is.” It is always present. “I am the resurrection and the life.” As life is received from Me, every one is raised up from the dead. A person is passed from death unto life. Here as before, and everywhere, the material body is not referred to, because it is no part of the person.

But suppose we understand it as teaching the doctrine of the resurrection of the body at the last day, how can we reconcile the declaration with the clause, “the hour is coming, and now is,” in the preceding verse? Who or what is meant by all who are in their graves? Are all the generations of people who have lived in this world in their graves? We have the most positive evidence that they are not. Moses and Elias are not in their graves. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are not in their graves. And that multitude which no one can number, from every nation, kindred, tribe, and tongue, are not in their graves.

There are many passages in the Bible which imply or plainly speak of a resurrection. The whole scope and intent of the revelation contained in the Word, is to teach and prove the Resurrection, the “anastasis,”the uninterrupted continuance of life in the spiritual world, after the death of the body, and how that life can be made the most blissful and rich in all spiritual blessings. But there is some difficulty about every passage, if by resurrection we mean the bringing back to life the material body. The passage in Job, which was once supposed to teach this doctrine, is now given up, and by common consent it is conceded that it has no reference to the resurrection of the body. And the passage in Daniel xii. 2 : “And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt,” was once claimed as teaching this doctrine. But it is now given up by the most intelligent writers upon the subject. The fatal clausein it is the words “many of them.” Many does not mean all, but only a part. The words cannot refer to a general resurrection, then; and the most learned commentators confess that it has no reference to the resurrection of the dead.

The famous passage in 1 Corinthians, the last one which I shall notice, teaches a doctrine directly the reverse of the one generally entertained, and strictly in accordance with the doctrine of the New Church. Paul declares that there is a natural body, and that there is a spiritual body; that a natural body is sown and a spiritual body raised, that the body raised is not the one sown. But it is needless to enter upon a critical examination of the whole passage. The more critically and exhaustively all the passages relating to this subject are examined, however, the more fully they will be found to confirm the doctrine that the resurrection itself consists essentially in the withdrawal of the man himself from the material body and raising him up in the spiritual world.

There are two resurrections, as there are two deaths. The first consists in the restoration of a person to spiritual life. This is truly a resurrection from death, and is effected while we live in the body in this world, by the voice of the Son of God, or the Divine truth. When the soul, dead in trespasses and sins, hears that voice and obeys it, it begins to rise from the grave of sin and falsity, and to live. It has passed from death unto life, and will die no more for ever. This is the essential resurrection, and the one to which our Lord always refers. The only effect of the death of the body upon such persons is to give them freedom and the most favorable opportunities for the exercise of all their faculties. The second resurrection is the conscious introduction of all, both the spiritually living and dead, into the spiritual world. These two resurrections are so spoken of in connection with each other, the first being described under the form of the second, that it is sometimes difficult to see the full bearing of all parts of the literal statement without a knowledge of this distinction. And much of the perplexity and doubt as to the meaning of many passages which the sincerest seekers after truth have found originates in this duality of statement and meaning. The two ideas, the resurrection from spiritual death and the continuance of life in the spiritual world, are both implied in all statements upon the subject; sometimes one truth appears more prominent than the other, but, generally, both crop out in some form. They do not in any way conflict with each other; and when the whole truth in both forms is understood, every particular passage in the whole Bible will be found to be perfectly consistent with itself, with every other passage, and with the tenor of the whole Scripture, and the doctrines of the New Church concerning the resurrection.

Right reason will always coincide with a true knowledge of Scripture. If this doctrine is genuine truth, reason will also give her cordial assent to it, and we shall find indications and prophecies of it in the created as well as the revealed Word. There is no instance in nature of such a resurrection as the common doctrine asserts. But the world is full of the most beautiful examples analogous to our true resurrection. Indeed, every organized thing passes through analogous states. The coarse rough calyx is as a body to the soul of the plant in winter. Man in this world is only the bud of what he will be. The voice of spring calls to the sleeping blossom, and it bursts the cerements of its grave, and rises up into the new world of light and heat, and blesses the earth and man with its fragrance and beauty. But the blossom is only the swaddling-clothes of the real plant, the seed containing the life, and therefore it fades and falls when the true plant is raised up into life.

The same stages of death and resurrection are still more fully exhibited in insect and animal life. The beautiful moth finds its anastasis; it is raised up from a worm, and emerges into a new world. The sparrow that flies in freedom through every field was once folded within the narrow limits of an egg. The shell was its horizon and the boundaries of its universe. But at the voice of God, revealed in its own instincts, it burst the bars of its tomb, and found its resurrection and its true home in another world.

So it is with us. We attain a resurrection for our material body when we are born into this world, and a resurrection for our spiritual body when we are born into the spiritual world. So fully and clearly does the Lord teach us in the visible things around us what He is doing in the invisible within us; so clearly does He show us in the present what He will do for us in the future.

Now, in all these changes and resurrections, there is no instance of the dead body being raised to life. In no case does any created thing go back and resume its former status. The moth never becomes a worm again. The sparrow never goes back into the shell, to reanimate it. Everything moves forward, completes the cycle of its life, and perpetuates its species. But human beings, being essentially spiritual, and, therefore, immortal beings, find their resurrection by passing into another world, which is their proper home.

There are many inconsistencies and absurdities connected with the common doctrine which its advocates have always found it impossible to reconcile or explain away, and many of them have been given up. It was once maintained, that exactly the same body deposited in the ground would be raised up. But this involves the idea that man is to be raised up with all his physical imperfections and deformities. Most persons die in old age, when the beauty and vigor of adult life are lost; or after the body has become emaciated with disease, or crushed and mangled by accident or in battle. The particles of matter contained in one body have been incorporated into many others, and omnipotence cannot make the materials which belong to two or more bodies, belong exclusively to each one.

To avoid one difficulty, some have maintained that every particle of matter that ever belonged to the body is incorporated into it at the resurrection. But this would make those who live to old age perfect monsters. Allowing the materials of the body to be renewed once in seven years, which is the common estimate, a man who weighed one hundred and fifty pounds, and lived to be threescore and ten, would weigh twelve or fifteen hundred pounds, and Methuselah would weigh nearly ten tons.

Some have tried to avoid this absurdity, and the impossibility of the identical matter which composed the body at death, being raised up, by the theory that the same chemical elements, as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, etc., will be incorporated into the new body.

But the essential difficulty with all the theories is, that they get only a material body, whatever terms may be applied to it, or whatever imaginary perfections it may be supposed to possess; and a material body must be subject to all the limitations and imperfections of matter. It must keep man in this world; and however vigorously its advocates may deny it, the common doctrine leads to an inevitable materialism. Matter cannot be changed into spirit. If it could be, it would cease to be matter, and we do not get the resurrection of the body after all! If such a change is possible, there can be a spiritual body, and if there can, what is the use of a material one? Carry the doctrine out to its legitimate consequences and absurdities, and inexplicable difficulties close about the mind on every side, until its advocates always are compelled to take refuge in the Divine omnipotence.

3. It is not necessary, even if I had space, to dwell upon our third topic. If the first two points are true, the third certainly is; if they are not, it is of but little consequence when the material body is raised. But in all the passages of the Word upon which I have commented, you can hardly fail to see that the Resurrection must necessarily take place at the time of the death of the body. All the persons mentioned had attained their resurrection. But if any further testimony is needed, what our Lord said to the thief upon the cross would be conclusive: “Today shalt thou be with me in paradise.”

In whatever light we view the subject we are brought back to the plain, simple, and comforting truth, that people are essentially spiritual beings, that their resurrection consists in the withdrawal of their spiritual from their material bodies, and that this takes place at the time the material body dies. Death and the resurrection are the same act viewed from opposite sides, and peoples’ departure from this world is their entrance into the spiritual world, where they are to find their home and the theatre of their activities for ever. The voice of God, as it comes to us in the analogies of nature, teaches this doctrine in every plant that grows, in every insect whose life is bounded by a summer’s day, and in every animal that lives; enlightened reason joyfully assents to it, and every aspiration of our souls finds in it the sure promise of the fruition of all our hopes; and especially as with the blast of a trumpet, with no uncertain sound, does the voice of God, in His Holy Word, declare it. So far as we accept it as truth, and bring it home to ourselves as a reality, earth and all its fleeting pleasure, and momentary issues fade away; life and immortality come to light; and only those attainments and possessions which will be of service to us in our final home in the eternal future, seem worthy of our labor or our love.